Facing the Reality of Drugs and Depression through GID

For my last blog this week, I would like to discuss the importance of student engagement and reflection in the GID process.  In previous blogs, I have also touched upon student engagement and reflection AND each semester that we use GID, I see more and more how critical this piece is to students’ learning.  One of the six principles of guided inquiry is:  Children learn by being actively engaged in and reflecting on an experience.

This past semester one of our seniors named Aidan began the GID process and eventually formulated the following guided inquiry question:  “What are the effects of using prescription and illegal drugs when one has depression?”  Earlier in the semester in our Psychology in Literature course, we had studied a unit on Destigmatizing Addiction.  We read the memoir Basketball Junkie by Chris Herren and Bill Reynolds, which is about Chris Herren’s battle with the disease of drug addiction.  We watched the ESPN documentary Unguarded, read multiple short stories, essays, poems, and viewed a couple of TED Talks–all with the intent for students to learn that addiction is a disease.  Aidan wrote in his reflection of the unit:

“In the book Basketball Junkie by Chris Herren and Bill Reynolds, Chris had issues his whole life that contributed to his addiction. I didn’t realize that many people who battle addiction suffer as a result of previous vulnerability. I thought that it was only bad choices that would made somebody addicted. In Chris’s case, it was his ADHD and depression that made him so susceptible to drug addiction. It was really sad to see that nobody recognized these issues and addressed them up front, not even Chris. Some of what happened to him was due to the people he surrounded himself with. I can now see how much of an impact your friends have on your behaviors, and this was a common theme throughout the addiction unit. People would have “friends” that influenced drug abuse, which later led to addiction. This also made me realize how much of a negative impact addiction can have on other people in your life. In Chris’s case, he caused a lot of pain and suffering to his family members, coaches, and old friends who just watched him through this whole process.”

So I assumed that Aidan’s GID question was centered on our addiction unit as it appeared he was further curious about the disease of addiction.  However, it wasn’t until he was presenting the CREATE phase to me that I truly understood why he was so engaged in the research.  Aidan presented his research through a google slide show.  He navigated through the slides sharing all the relevant research showing that addiction is a disease. He shared how a misconception that some teens believe is if they are depressed that self-medicating with all kinds of drugs will help decrease their depression.  At the end of his presentation, he said to me, “I assume you know who I geared my research towards, Mrs. Stoker.”  I quickly thought, oh shoot, I totally missed this one–I have no idea who he is talking about…so I said, “I assume one of your friends?”  He then said, “Justin.”  And it clicked.  Unfortunately, a friend of Aidan’s who also had been one of my students had recently left school and from what we knew was struggling with addiction most likely in connection to depression.  Aidan’s research was based on his experiences with his friend Justin.

Aidan went on to share that he wanted to show his research to Justin in hopes of showing him that the effects of drugs through self-medication were not helpful at all to someone suffering from depression.  Admittedly, my heart broke and it swelled at Aidan’s compassion, empathy, and hope for his friend.  We talked further about how hard hard it is to watch a loved one suffering with addiction.  We discussed the importance of reaching out and knowing that the person on the other end may not be receptive to one’s help.  Aidan said he had to try.

This interaction with Aidan certainly reminded me how much our students are dealing with on a daily basis–how much they really are thinking and feeling–and how empowering using GID to engage and reflect is to our students.  As teachers, the easy way is to assign research topics, it initially seems more difficult to give up the control and have students explore on their own–but as read in the aforementioned example, it is so worth it.  Our objective really as educators is often to guide our students in their learning and to encourage them to take charge of their own learning–as to make meaning in their relationships with themselves, their peers, and the world in which they live.  Do I really hope that Aidan and Justin will connect over Aidan’s research?  Of course I do.  Am I afraid they won’t?  Absolutely.  And yet, I believe in Aidan saying he will try.   As I reflect on my experience with this semester’s GID, I know I won’t forget how GID connects us.

Kathleen Stoker

English/Journalism Teacher

Westborough High School


The Importance of Librarians with GID: A classroom teacher’s testimony

I have learned so000000 much about GID  through working with my school librarian.  My students and I have had many successes with GID because of our school librarian.  And there is no doubt that I am a better teacher because of collaborating with Anita Cellucci (@LibraryWHS)–our school librarian.

A pathetic confession:  over twenty years ago, I was taught that a school librarian could help me find a book I needed and then check out that book.  And that’s it.   And fortunately, it was ten years ago when Anita taught me that librarians do much more!  And it was Anita who suggested we attend The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL) Summer GID Institute for Student Learning at Rutgers University four years ago.  Thank you, Anita!


Anita truly embodies the role of the librarian in the GID process.  In Figure 4.3 in Guided Inquiry Learning in the 21st Century (Kuhlthua, Maniotes, and Caspari 57-58), the roles of the librarian are described as Resource Specialist, Information literacy teacher, and Collaboration gatekeeper.  I can attest that Anita fully defines these roles in our GID collaborations that have occurred for twice a year for the past three years.  She began by creating a LibGuide for my course and for our GID (http://whs.westborough.libguides.com/psychinlit).  She helped me contact speakers from NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness) as part of our OPEN stage.  Anita taught the lessons on information literacy and research.  She facilitated the creation of all the students Inquiry Questions (including how to write a quality inquiry question)…each step of the process, Anita was right there.  As I mentioned in my previous post there was such freedom in letting go of picking research topics for students; well it’s equally freeing to co-teach with Anita and share the teaching responsibilities.  Like I shared at the beginning of this post, Anita has taught me a lot about informational literacy, trusting the GID process, and having patience with our students as they navigate their GID journey.

Here is one student example of how Anita supports our students.  The following response is from the student’s reflection at the end of her GID experience.

Identify at least one difficulty you encountered during your inquiry?

One difficulty that I found during my inquiry is finding articles related to my project. It was hard to find mental illnesses related to trauma, and PTSD that wasn’t related to people in the military since not one article explained all the mental illnesses related to trauma. Most of the articles that I found about mental illnesses related to trauma was PTSD, and this was also mostly related to people in the military. This was interesting, but not related to my question. Another difficulty I encountered was finding mental illnesses related to trauma. The articles that I originally found didn’t say what mental illnesses people may develop after experiencing trauma, which then made it hard to answer my question.

How did you overcome the difficulty?

I overcame this difficulty by first asking Mrs. Cellucci for help. We decided that I needed to use more Boolean Operators to narrow down the search. This made sure that I was pinpointing exactly what I wanted to research. One of the new searches I used was PTSD not veterans. I found many more articles related to what I was researching this way. To solve my problem with more mental illnesses, I started to look up mental illnesses that I thought may be related to experiencing trauma, and soon found many mental illnesses that way.

As one can read from the student’s responses–I asked Mrs. Cellucci for help–to collaborate with Anita is to offer our students two educators with whom to work.

And this year, Anita was mentoring a student teacher–Luke Steere who actually blogged recently for 52GID.  This past semester the three of us joined together to teach GID to my senior seminar Psychology in Literature.  It was a classroom teacher’s dream come true–three educators working with twenty students.

I’ve heard classroom teachers say they don’t have time to collaborate with their librarian or the classroom teacher can “teach it all.”  I contend that we actually create more time for ourselves when we collaborate with our librarian and no teacher can teach it all.  It’s also a wonderful experience to connect with a fellow educator.  We have a heck of a lot of fun–Anita and I laugh  many a day–and we also have shed some tears.  Thanks, Anita, I look forward to teaching GID with you next year! 



Vulnerability in GID

“Vulnerability is the birthplace of love, belonging, joy, courage, empathy, and creativity.  It is the source of hope, empathy, accountability, and authenticity…”

–Dr. Brene Brown, research professor/author

Happy Summer!  My name is Kathleen Stoker and I am a high school English/Journalism teacher.  I teach in a small town 40 minutes west of Boston, MA.  I am beyond grateful to say I have been part of the GID community for more than a few years now.  I believe this is my third time guest blogging for 52GID–and it is in this round that I have come to the realization that vulnerability is an integral part of the GID process–for both the educator and the student.  The aforementioned quote by Dr. Brene Brown sums up my professional and personal experience as an educator leading my students through the GID process in my senior seminar Psychology in Literature.  In this post, I will share how vulnerability was also a critical part of my student’s experience.

Every semester my co-educator and librarian Anita Cellucci (@LibraryWHS) and I embark on GID with our students, I feel excited, anxious, and well–vulnerable.  To go through GID with students is to be vulnerable as an educator because I don’t know what my students will choose to explore.  I don’t know everything (and sometimes anything) about what information they will gather.  I no longer have any perceived control that traditional research assignments could have–and guess what?  I LOVE the freedom that comes with the vulnerability in GID!

In the last weeks of the course, we ask our seniors to reflect in the OPEN, IMMERSE, And EXPLORE stages of GID on what they have learned over the semester in our class.  The course is filled with different types of literature that help students to destigmatize mental health, incorporate positive psychology into their daily lives, and navigate their own personal experiences.  Students IDENTIFY a topic of their own choice with guided support from Anita and me and then students move into their GATHER stage.  Of course there is a lot that happens within those beginning stages…

In Leslie Maniotes book Guided Inquiry Learning in the 21st Century (Kuhlthau, Maniotes, and Caspari, 2007), there is a section labeled “An Important Discovery” (17) in which inquiry is defined as “initiated by someone who has something that needs investigation, a fundamental question, pressing issue, or troubling problem that requires further information.”  This definition directly applies to one of our students named Samantha.  I have Samantha’s permission to share her story as she hopes that other educators and students will see the benefits of the GID process.  Samantha truly needed to investigate a pressing issue that was as personal as it gets…

Two weeks before school started this year, Samantha and her family tragically witnessed her uncle drown during their annual family vacation.  They also witnessed the near death of Samantha’s younger brother and her cousin.  The trauma that Samantha and her family suffered was profound–to say the least.  Samantha entered our senior seminar in shock and in grief.  She never thought she would enter her senior year mourning the loss of a beloved one.  And the irony was that the first book I teach in our course is Ordinary People (Guest) about a boy who witnesses the drowning death of his brother.  Upon Samantha and her mother sharing with a guidance counselor what they had just experienced, we decided to meet to discuss the course’s content.  Samantha decided to stay in Psychology in Literature; our hope was that the course and our classroom would offer her a safe space to experience her grief.  She would also see our school adjustment counselor on a regular basis.  We decided that she would read an alternative text and would stay in daily class as long as she could when we were having class discussions.  Anita offered the library as another safe space that Samantha could spend time if class conversations hit too close to home and became too overwhelming.

Anita and I watched and supported daily as Samantha would sometimes choose to go to the library to work independently or would stay to endure a class conversation on grief, family trauma, depression, the pros of therapy, etc.  We observed as Samantha time and time again showed courage and perseverance to sit in her own grief, discomfort, and pain.

Flash forward to the end of the semester when we started GID, I can remember being overwhelmed with emotion as Samantha worked through her inquiry question with Anita and shared it with me:  How does experiencing a traumatic event affect a person psychologically and physically, and what are coping mechanisms and treatment options? Samantha was at a space in her grief process that she was able to truly explore and to research what she had been through and was going through.  

Later in a reflection on the GID process, Samatha answered this question.

Describe the process of how you developed a specific topic within the inquiry question?

Based on what had happened over this past summer, I was very interested in what trauma really was and what mental illnesses can happen because of experiencing trauma. I was also interested in what treatment options were most effective. I first thought of researching one specific treatment that I had known of, but thought that this topic would be more broad and I could always add in the treatment option…

Samantha dove deep into her research; she often wanted to be left alone to do her research, which was part of her grieving process.  Anita and I continued to support her, but we also knew she needed time to research and time to digest how close the research was to her personally.  Samantha learned that she was experiencing PTSD and was feeling depressed as a result of the trauma and profound sadness she was feeling at the loss of her uncle.  And she also learned that building resilience was a way to persevere through her trauma–and that is what she had been doing all semester–building resilence. In the CREATE phase, Samantha created a google slide show of her research findings.  The last slide is resilience in which she shares the definition:

  • Resilience is the ability to adapt in a healthy way in order to become strong in the face of trauma, adversity, tragedy, severe stress, or difficult life-changing events
    • This generally refers to the ability to bounce back from stressful, traumatic, or tragic situations such as divorce, death of a loved one, loss of employment, having a parent with a mental illness, or experiencing abuse  

Samantha went on that semester to run a half marathon that she had planned to run before her uncle’s death; she had wavered as to whether she should do it and then decided he would have wanted her to.  Samantha was able to go to her most vulnerable place that semester; the courage she embraced to feel her feelings, to explore the trauma she was experiencing, and to learn the power of resilience truly showed how powerful the human connection can be.

Reflecting back on that teaching experience, I truly believe to have the space, time, and methodology through GID was an empowering vehicle for Anita and me to support Samantha.  Throughout the process, Anita and I had frequent conversations as we were feeling vulnerable in wanting to make sure we were guiding Samantha.  The keys were our check-ins with Samantha, Samantha’s mom and I emailed each other regularly, and Samantha was receiving professional support.

On the last day of school, Samantha came in to say good-bye.  She gave me the most beautiful card and thanked me; and yet, we educators know–we often find ourselves thanking our students for the journeys we walk together.

Kathleen Stoker

Westborough High School

Westborough, MA
















Why It’s Important to Fail and Celebrate

Luke here again. So: my GID process was a bit bumpy— expected for a first timer. I was energized enough afterwards to try two other library projects before the end of the year and found myself molding the requirements of existing projects around GID principles. Collaboration is never perfect, but GID is a great way to practice it. A successful GID project requires an inquiry community led by a learning team who model best inquiry and collaboration practices. GID is also about taking risks and growing a culture within a school. Creating a sustainable GID is important, so I worked with my two trusted allies at the school:

  • An energetic 5th grade teacher, Ms. Breite, who was working on a Historical Fiction Creative Writing assignment. I focused on developing a Share, Create, and Evaluate phase for the end of her project. She had a good idea of what to do for the beginning of the assignment and my English background helped to kick it off, and at the end of the writing process, we added in a round-robin reading of the stories at a Share Fair where students read drafts and gave feedback, sharing out their favorite parts. I also pushed Ms. Breite to include a self-assessment as part of the final rubric.
  • I also pushed the music teacher, Mr. Kelly, who was interested in having the students do Photo Essays, to value process over product in the assignment. I reframed the idea of a ‘Photo Essay’ as but one way of synthesizing an understanding about a musical topic. Here, I implemented an Immerse phase where students found a musician they were interested in, an Identify where they came up with inquiry questions, and revamped the Gather phase to include library databases.

Highlighting the beginning and end of the GID process to bring it to teachers worked well. The question of collaboration is one of magnitude, and GID takes a lot of time commitment. But one way to ease in is to ask: How much is the teacher willing to change? As the English teacher, I trial-ran GID on my own— it gave me a feel for the flow. As the librarian, which comes with its own form of salesmanship, the best tools for implementing GID were as follows:

    • Do the work. Show your collaborators you have done some work, and share that work with them on Google Drive. I used the things I knew how to use: the self-reflection rubrics I designed for my Poetry Project were modified for Ms. Breite’s class, and they themselves were adapted from the 5 Kinds of Learning rubric. I used a version of Anita’s collaboration document for planning both.
    • Slow down and let go. Allowing enough scheduled time for inquiry and interest activation during open was an eye-opener, I stressed choice across the whole project too, with how the student was reacting to the problems they were encountering to the final product they choose for Create. I needed to spend more time on Gather with my English students. We needed more time refining our questions.
    • Acknowledge that you are just like the students. Teachers aren’t the only ones breaking habits during their first GID experience. Telling students what to do is vastly different than guiding them. There was palpable unease with my 7th graders. Many were hesitant to come up with their own research questions and project proposals in lieu of asking: “What are we supposed to do?” “We are Immersing today, here are the best practices for it…” Students need to practice it just like we do and working on it over the course of the year is important, like good ol’ Responsive Classroom with community behavior. As a teacher, you want social and emotional behaviors within an Inquiry Community to be reinforced through GID. GID holds up a brilliant mirror: the phases require teachers to reflect alongside students. The learning team is modeling exactly what students are doing so planning and collaborating on GID is an inquiry exercise for all.


  • To start, steal. Showing a teacher with whom you are collaborating how what they are doing can be cultivated in the name of Inquiry and Social-Emotional learning is fun. At first, it may not be pretty, though. Go hunting for ideas. Piecemealing from resources like Guided Inquiry Design in Action: High School— tip of the hat to Kathy Boguszewski and her GID project on the National History Day “Taking a Stand Theme” (p. 157-214)— and from mentors, like Anita, is a great start. Remember stealing is different than copying.


  • Celebrate the journey. I made the collaborating teacher’s willingness to join me on the journey of GID the most important thing in my life that week. The difficult part, I observed, is the teachers relinquishing a bit of control over things like topics and final products. Getting two of the phases into the project is enough to celebrate— let them know what they did and what they can try next time. I mean, don’t over do it, but highlight the benefits of the inquiry and the social-emotional aspects of the projects. Make a survey for the students to reflect on how well the learning team did.

Of course, Leslie Maniotes has provided me a roadmap for what to do next: continue to build the foundation. Each little lesson can be a brick in that structure. Reflect and modify the brick if needed. She urges us to create support structures and systems that develop and sustain inquiry and commit to keeping it around. So I’m going to try and do just that. Thank you for reading, now I’m going elsewhere on the blog for other ideas! Happy guiding!

Luke Steere

Hillside School, Massachusetts

Tripping Over Poetry

It’s Luke Steere again. In preparation for my GID, I turned to Maniotes (2017) in Guided Inquiry Design in Action: High School, who writes that offering a book full of Guided Inquiry Design (GID) units was to “give educators a picture of the wide variety of content and ways that Guided Inquiry can look” (p. 243). At first, she, Ann Caspari, and Carol Kuhlthau, who developed the framework, were hesitant to share content for “fear that people would teach them as canned lessons” (p. 243), but they soon decided to do it as a celebration of sort (akin to this blog), and this book is a trove.

As I wrote before, I work at Hillside. It is an all-boys boarding school serving 5th to 9th students from 13 different countries, a dozen US states, and a range of different learning abilities. We have about 160 students, the majority of which live on campus. I teach three classes of English in addition to my library duties, and though I have a fairly good collaborative relationship with the teachers as a teacher-librarian, I thought I would try my hand at GID solo. It was National Poetry Month.

Typically I assign a Poetry Research project which attempts to expose the students to a wide range of styles of poetry and then lets them pick a “lens” through which to study poetry. We define research questions, hit the databases, and write a paper. In the run up to the project I assign poems: Nikki Giovanni, Shel Silverstein, Sandburg, Whitman, Ogden Nash, William Blake; a smattering. I thought: a good starting point for GID is to reframe projects like this. Why assign reading when you could Open using something like Kofi Dadzie’s 2016 Indie Finals performance from Louder than a Bomb MA? The silence which fell across the room until he hits a symbolic punchline in this poem’s center was great. Were they reacting to his remarks about finding comfort in a new, suburban geography far from home? the rhythm and energy? the fact that it wasn’t an adult? the merciful surprise that this was not another one of Mr. Steere’s handouts?

Here’s the beauty of Open: it didn’t matter. They are taking what they want from the experience of hearing poetry. I invited them to try and find more slam poems or music lyrics or other poems over the next few days as we moved into an Immerse/Explore hybrid which focused on large poetry treasuries, a table where they could go on computers to view other Slam Poetry videos, and a spot to plug headphones into an iPad and listen to their favorite songs. We shared our findings with small Inquiry Circles— some students knew they wanted to focus on rap music, others had only read The Giving Tree by Silverstein and were surprised to find Where the Sidewalk Ends among the stacks of poetry, others were interested in doing Shakespeare. At the beginning and end of each class, I did check-ins. The informal ones, like One-Word Summaries, worked the best, but the involved journal entries which students sent to me on Schoology provided more nuanced feedback. It was good to take the temperature of the class— were they frustrated or were they finding success?

Next came a more concrete deliverable— the so-called “other shoe” which was dropping after my students had enjoyed a relatively loose week of dabbling in poetry. It was time to Identify a research question about poetry. We went over the ways in which one can make a good inquiry question and then I had them email it to me after drafting. We refined them over email or in class the next day and reviewed our database habits, and set off on Gather. One student asked about the connections between country music and poetry, a few wanted to dig into the connections between Shel Silverstein’s training as a cartoonist and as a writer, still more wanted to look into the link between rap music and poetry. Other topics were on jokes, humor, and poetry; American Poetry and the country’s founding, and poetry in the Internet age. I found students were choosing from a bigger variety of topics than when they were assigned the “lens” research paper. Check-ins became more formal and I handed out grids with Successes, Struggles, Questions, and Action Items (which I had got from my practicum with Anita) which allowed students to package these ideas to communicate to me and their peers.

We went digging, feeling good. I was eager. And then: poetry month was over. I still had another unit planned for the year before my final paper was to be assigned, a final paper which would be due at the end of May. Ugh. I would have to modify Create and— but wait— what’s this? An email from the 6th Grade Teacher. From my students, she has heard (!) that I am working on a fun (!) Poetry Research project and is wondering if I would like to collaborate on a Poetry Cafe at the end of the week. Moreover, the Daughters of the American Revolution was coming for their annual visit and awards ceremony.  I thought that each student would write an article, instead of a paper. Of course I had to bring in some curriculum grammar and writing skills, but I allowed them some latitude on what else to do. Some student proposed to bring photos into their article, others wrote poems in the style of their research, but the majority performed at one of the two events. Along with the sixth graders who were reading original poems, my students read research statements, poems they had found over the course of their work, or creative pieces written after certain styles and poets. We were Creating, Sharing, and expanding our learning community!

Luke Steere

Hillside School, Massachusetts

Guided, flailing Inquiry

I am Luke Steere, and honored to be a guest blogger for 52GID. After getting over the sheer terror of accidentally telling students to “immerse in databases” during the Explore stage or “explore options for projects” during the Create phase, I realized the very essence of GID is about validating feelings and difficulties, and I should be demonstrating uncertainty as much as I am requiring my students to. A realization which followed: GID is an important framework not just for projects, but for driving a school’s culture toward inquiry and meta-learning.

My experience with GID began as part of an observation of the Westborough High School library for a master’s course in 2016. It looked like this: I am in the WHS library nodding knowingly with an inward ignorance, as millennials will, with the overly confident feeling that everything being said by SLT Anita Cellucci, whom I am interviewing, and who is using acronyms such as GID, ISP, and IEP, could later be searched on the web. And I write the acronyms feverishly (my last career: journalist). And my understanding of those acronyms in the moment had little-to-no bearing on info I was wont to get, having done a few other ‘15 hour’ observations for my master’s already. “Uhhh— cool! So what’s your annual budget? … And how many things— err items— in your collection?” If only I knew…

But I did just that, the web stuff, and checked out this blog. And boy did I have follow-up questions with which to pester her. And, more importantly, I knew where I would want to go for my high school practicum site because, frankly, I was blown away by All the colors of GID (which you can go and read, right now, on this very blog). So it was no surprise I would pick Anita as my practicum supervisor, with the hope of learning more about GID, and over the last five months I have been working alongside her and dipping my toe into the learning method. And using it (selfishly) as a sort of fun little distraction from all the paperwork the Department of Elementary and Secondary Ed. requires.

Yes— fun distraction. I mean, I know teaching is fun, but GID has a knack for imbuing it with a renewed sense of purpose and direction. No more teeth grinding about collaboration with a teacher who is assigning student topics or projects— the push for student choice is built in. I should mention here that I was one of those teachers: during my practicum I taught full time as an English Teacher and Librarian at the Hillside School: an all-boys boarding operation about 15 minutes from Westborough. I live there in a dorm on campus.

So, I took what I learned from the social, emotional tutelage of Anita and her guidance through a remarkable project with a Psychology and Lit teacher named Kathy Stoker and went back to my job for the Spring Term. “Hello, may I have one-and-a-half to two weeks of your class time for a cool project?” What could go wrong?


Luke Steere

English Teacher and Librarian at the Hillside School